Prostatitis is an inflammation of the prostate gland (semen). Of all the diseases of the genitourinary system in men, prostatitis is the most common. Depending on the course, acute or chronic prostatitis is differentiated, its symptoms and treatment, respectively, depending on the form of the disease. According to various statistics, up to 45% of European men suffer from this disease.
Signs of prostatitis in men
Signs of prostatitis in men are most often considered a violation of the process of urination, disturbances in the intimate space, painful sensations. The risk group is men aged between 30 and 50 years, but the disease occurs at an earlier age. Diagnostics are carried out by urologists, andrologists. The clinical picture makes it possible to determine the disease, ultrasound examination is also performed, bacteriological cultures of urine, as well as prostate secretions, are required. Prostatitis can cause the appearance of abscesses on the prostate gland, an inflammatory process in the upper part of the genitourinary system, testicles and epididymis, which can cause serious health hazards and affect reproductive function.
Infections that provoke prostatitis can enter the glands from the organs of the genitourinary system or from a distant focus if there are various inflammatory diseases (tonsillitis, influenza, furunculosis, etc. ). The presence of infection in the body does not always lead to disease; experts identify specific factors that increase the risk of disease.
Etiology of prostatitis
Infections that cause the onset of prostatitis are often caused by Staphylococcus aureus, enterococci, enterobacteria, Proteus, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. They often work together. But a large number of microorganisms belong to the conditionally pathogenic microflora, that is, they do not cause inflammation by themselves.
Complications of prostatitis
Complications caused by acute prostatitis. If patients do not seek medical help for acute prostatitis, prostate gland abscesses sometimes develop. This manifests itself in a state of chills, severe hyperthermia. Pain in the perineum area becomes strong, sharp, urination becomes more difficult, defecation becomes impossible. Also, the process of urination significantly complicates prostate edema. Sometimes, there are cases when the abscess opens on its own. In this case, the pus can pass through the urethra (found in the urine) or through the rectum (out in the stool). But often the abscess has to be opened surgically. It is important to identify the abscess in a timely manner, because its rupture can cause sepsis or peritonitis, there are cases of death.
Complications characteristic of chronic prostatitis. Chronic prostatitis has a lot of time with persistent remission, when inflammation practically has no effect on well -being. At times when the patient does not feel pain and is uncomfortable he refuses to treat prostatitis. This can lead to serious complications. First of all, cystitis and pyelonephritis develop. Often there is an inflammatory process in the testicles, epididymis, seminal vesicles. They, in turn, can lead to the extinction of reproductive function. As a result of chronic prostatitis, calculus prostatitis sometimes occurs, which is characterized by the occurrence of stones in the prostate and excretory tract. They are formed from prostate secretions, lime salts, phosphates.
Prevention of prostatitis
As a prophylaxis of prostatitis, men are advised to minimize, and, if possible, eliminate, factors that increase the likelihood of developing the disease. While inactive, it is necessary to rest for a while that should be used for physical activity (warming up, walking). Needed to get good nutrition according to the regimen. If constipated, practice defecation by taking laxatives.
Regarding sex life, experts recommend adhering to the value of gold, because prolonged sexual abstinence and excessive male activity in this area are equally dangerous. You also need to seek help in a timely manner if you suspect a urological disease or sexually transmitted infection.
To prevent recurrence, patients with chronic forms should always undergo a preventive examination with an andrologist and urologist.
Causes of prostatitis
Various conditions associated with a single or permanent adverse effects, lifestyle, nature of professional activities can influence the predisposition to the disease.
The risk increases with the presence of congestion in the prostate, as well as infectious diseases. Severe hypothermia, both as an isolated and persistent case (related to professional activities), sometimes provokes inflammation. A man’s level of activity is very important. Inactive work, a lifestyle that does not involve sports, walking, causes congestion that causes prostatitis in men. Also, such factors include frequent constipation, lack of rhythm of sexual life (prolonged absence of sexual intercourse and excessive activity are equally dangerous, and incomplete ejaculation is also dangerous). Various chronic or focal diseases of infection (cholecystitis, tonsillitis, caries and more), venereal (trichomoniasis, gonorrhea, chlamydiasis), various diseases of the urinary tract increase the likelihood of such diseases.
Lifestyle disorders, manifested in constant stress, lack of a normal sleep and wake regime, improper diet, excessive load on athletes - all this reduces the body's defenses and, in combination with other factors, causes prostatitis. Continuous intake of harmful substances into the body as a result of smoking, alcohol abuse - increases and contributes to the occurrence of this disease.
Some experts note the association of prostatitis in men with permanent injuries to the perineum (vibration, concussion), which is often observed in drivers, motorcyclists, cyclists. Although often such effects only exacerbate the existing disease.
Symptoms of prostatitis
Symptoms of acute prostatitis vary depending on the stage of the disease:
- Catarrhal prostatitis (acute). There is pain in the perineum, sacrum. Urination becomes more frequent, the process may be accompanied by pain.
- Follicular prostatitis (acute). Painful sensations are increasing, especially those shown acutely during bowel emptying, as they are injected into the anus. The process of urination is interrupted, urine comes out in a thin stream, or gets stuck in the bladder. There may be a slight increase in temperature.
- Parenchymal prostatitis (acute). Hyperthermia, sometimes the temperature reaches 40 degrees, intoxication of the body. Urination is delayed, defecation is difficult. The pain became sharp, throbbing.
Sometimes acute prostatitis progresses to a chronic form, but often chronic prostatitis develops mainly, while there are no obvious symptoms. Sometimes patients may notice a slight hyperthermia, not a strong painful sensation appears in the perineum, especially when urinating, defecation. The obvious sign of prostatitis is a slight discharge from the urethra that occurs during defecation.
Primary chronic prostatitis does not occur overnight. The long -term process usually begins with blood stasis in the capillaries, and eventually flows into inflammation.
Often develops as a result of neglected inflammatory processes caused by gonococci, Trichomonas, chlamydia, and ureaplasma. This inflammatory process hides the minor symptoms of prostatitis. As a result, patients are unaware of the progression of the disease.
Chronic prostatitis can be identified by the frequency of fatigue, burning sensations in the perineum, urethra, and urinary disturbances that occur. Intimate disorders associated with erectile dysfunction often cause depression. But in patients, the symptoms appear in different ways, some signs of prostatitis in men may not be visible at all.
Medical science determines the following chronic prostatitis syndromes:
- pain syndrome;
- urinary disorders;
- violations in the genital area.
Pain syndrome.Although prostate tissue does not have pain receptors, patients may experience pain with prostatitis. This is due to the fact that the nerve ducts, which are abundant in the small pelvis, are almost always involved in the inflammatory process. Sensation differs in different patients. The pain can be mild, aching, or can cause significant discomfort. It can also increase or subside slightly during active sexual intercourse, ejaculation. The pain sometimes radiates to the lumbar region (this symptom is characteristic of many diseases), scrotum, perineum or sacrum.
Problems with urination (disturbed disorder).With prostatitis, the internal space of the ureter is reduced due to compression. The more the prostate gland gets bigger, the more the ureter is compressed. Thus, from the first stage, the patient begins to notice an increase in the desire to urinate, there is a feeling that the bladder is not completely emptied. In the process of compensatory hypertrophy of the ureteral and bladder muscles, the disorder becomes less pronounced, but it recurs over time.
Problems in an intimate environment.Early in the development of the disease, sexual dysfunction can manifest itself in different ways. Some patients complain of weak orgasms, others experience worsening erections or often have erections at night. Ejaculation is faster. Pain during ejaculation causes some patients not to have sexual intercourse. With the development of inflammatory diseases, the disorder becomes more pronounced, leading to the onset of impotence.
Research shows that this syndrome is highly dependent on psychological factors. Potential disorders due to inflammatory processes do not occur in all patients. But usually the patient, knowing about the presence of prostatitis, falls into a state of panic and expects impotence. The stronger the feeling of restlessness and the level of predisposition in the patient, the more frequent the onset of discomfort in chronic prostatitis. The disease has psychological complications, which are manifested in an obsession with the disease and as a consequence, strong restlessness, irritability. This is due to a painful reaction to the possible consequences of chronic prostatitis.
Diagnostics of prostatitis
The diagnosis of this disease helps create a specific clinical picture. In addition to interviewing patients, reviewing the anamnesis, rectal palpation is the first, the secretions of the prostate gland are taken for analysis.
Ultrasound examination allows you to determine the presence of structural changes in the gland (cysts, tumors, prostate adenomas) and confirm the diagnosis. To study reproductive function, a spermogram is performed.
Various urodynamic studies make it possible to determine the degree and nature of disorders of the urinary process. To exclude the presence of prostate cancer and adenoma, examination of PSA (prostate -specific antigen) levels was prescribed, high concentrations indicating the presence of a tumor.
Treatment of prostatitis
Therapy for acute prostatitis.If there are no complications in the acute form, prostatitis in men can be treated outpatiently under the supervision of an andrologist or urologist. If there are signs of abscesses, general intoxication is observed, they use the treatment of prostatitis in the hospital. A patient with the acute form was given antibiotics. Previously, the sensitivity of infectious agents was examined. Drugs that can penetrate deep into prostate tissue (e. g. , ciprofloxacin) are often used. If an abscess occurs, surgery is opened through the urethra or rectum. Physiotherapy for acute forms of the disease can be prescribed only after getting rid of the acute symptoms. In such cases, prostate massage, electrophoresis, microwave and UHF therapy are performed. If there is prolonged urinary retention, they require bladder catheterization.
Often, acute prostatitis progresses to a chronic form, this is also observed in patients who receive timely treatment.
Therapeutic measures for chronic prostatitis
Treatment for chronic prostatitis does not always provide an opportunity to completely get rid of the disease. But with an orderly process, it is almost impossible to get rid of those symptoms, to achieve a stable remission effect for a long time.
With chronic prostatitis, complex therapy is carried out. First of all, the patient takes antibacterial medication for one to two months. In addition to primary antibiotic therapy, physiotherapy treatment and prostate massage are also prescribed. Also, patients are helped to adjust their lifestyle to increase the body’s defenses and minimize the factors that provoke inflammation.
Taking antibacterial medication for chronic prostatitis.The doctor selects the drug, the duration of admission, the required dose in each case separately. Usually this course is a bit long. Before prescribing the drug, studies on the sensitivity of the microflora are performed by inoculating prostate secretions, urine.
Prostate massage in the treatment of diseases.This step shows good results. The glands receive a complex effect. First of all, it becomes possible to get rid of from the body the secretions of inflammation that has accumulated in the prostate (it is released during massage). Improving blood circulation through this manipulation allows you to fight all types of stagnation, and also contributes to the good penetration of antibiotics into the glandular tissue.
Physiotherapy in the treatment of inflammation.Physiotherapy for chronic prostatitis aims to activate blood circulation. For this purpose, the patient is exposed to laser, ultrasound, and magnetic vibrations are used. In some cases, this procedure is replaced with a warm medicine enema, which is always given to the patient. Recommend sitz baths, mud treatments, mineral waters.
Immunocorrection in the treatment of chronic prostatitis.Lack of immunity adversely affects health. This factor is one of the fundamental factors in the development of the disease and its exacerbation. A long -term course of antibiotic intake, which is mandatory for chronic prostatitis, also reduces the body’s defenses. Therefore, patients are advised to consult an immunologist to select a strategy to perform immune correction.
Common lifestyle correction in the treatment of disease.Maintaining a healthy lifestyle is not only the most effective prevention of prostatitis, but also a necessary therapeutic measure. Therefore, the patient, along with the specialist, analyzes the habits that are detrimental factors. It is necessary to make a daily regimen with adequate sleep duration, to ensure the presence of regular moderate physical activity. Nutrition is important.